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|Research and development course of spinosad Home Business Articles | April 26 Arron Afflalo Jersey , 2013
Since the chemical pesticide appears, it plays an extremely important role on the control of pests in agriculture and forestry, ensuring high yield and stable yield of agroforestry.?
But the resistance, residues, pest resurgence and other negative effects caused by conventional chemical pesticides cannot be avoided, in order to achieve the sustainable development in agriculture and forestry, it must put on higher requirements to pesticides, such as efficient Jonathan Isaac Jersey , low toxicity, environmental friendly and so on. To this end, the pesticide research and development department has invested considerable human and material resources for upgrading the pesticides variety, in recent years, the biological pesticides as the hot spots of pesticide research and development also has been made a considerable progress. Insecticidal antibiotics due to its high anti-effect, wide insecticidal spectrum, relative low toxicity, small effect on environment Jason Williams Jersey , so has strong competitiveness, within a short time was occupied a certain share in international pesticide market, currently was applied ?in rice, cotton, vegetable, fruit, tobacco, flower and multiple crops Grant Hill Jersey , in livestock, both inside and outside parasites of pets also displayed its superiority. Spinosad is the antibiotics pesticides produced by ray fungi saccharopolyspora spinosa fermentation, both with the bio-pesticide?s safety and chemical synthetic pesticides? quick-impact characteristics.
Spinosad series compounds are the secondary metabolites of Saccharopolyspora spinosa through aerobic fermentation in culture medium. Spinosad, from appear, determine biological activity and early development, the whole process last for about 12 years, its successful research has a certain chance, soil samples containing Spinosad bacterial strain is a chemist collecting on vacation in the Caribbean Shaquille O'Neal Jersey , the next 12 years, put hundreds of employees and a large number of research groups, and eventually developed the Spinosyn A and D as the main components of the commercial Spinosad product. In structural terms, spinosad is a macrolide class, there's a unique quad-core ring system containing in the intramolecularly, and connection to two different six-membered sugar. Commercial products are use spinosyn A and D as the main active ingredient.
Spinosad?s mechanism of action is novel and unique. It has quickly tagged out and feeding toxicity to insects, by stimulating the nervous system of insects, leading to non-functional muscle contraction failure Vince Carter Jersey , accompanied by trembling and paralysis. These results are the same as the results of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors activated. Spinosad is also role in gamma-aminobutyric receptor, which is likely to further improve its insecticidal activity. Such modes of action can be described as unique.
First prove that fermented liquid have activity to mosquito, later confirmed that it has tag out, antifeedant effects to tropical armyworm Spodoptera eridamia. Farm prevention and control proved that it has wide spectrum, high insecticidal activity to Lepidoptera, Thysanoptera of insecticidal pest, the activities to part of the Diptera, Coleoptera Dwight Howard Jersey , Hymenoptera pests has also been confirmed.
Spinosad for many beneficial insects and beneficial organisms with a high level of safety threshold, to mammals and birds have relatively low toxicity, to aquatic animals is also slightly moderate toxicity, in addition, mammalian chronic toxicity testing has shown that Spinosad is? not carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic or neurotoxicity effects.
Spinosad in the environment degraded by various combination ways, mainly have photolysis and biodegradation Tracy Mcgrady Jersey , finally degraded into natural groups such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, so it will not cause pollution to the environment. The half-life of soil photolysis degradation is 9-10 days, whereas the half-life of water photolysis is less than 1 day, the half-life of foliar photodegradation is 1.6~16 days. Under no light conditions, the half-life of aerobic soil metabolism is 9-17 days.
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